By Marc Bekoff, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; (firstname.lastname@example.org; http://literati.net/Bekoff )
As a scientist who's studied animal emotions for more than thirty years, I consider myself very fortunate. I love what I do. I love learning about animals, and I love sharing what my colleagues and I discover with others. Whenever I observe or work with animals, I get to contribute to "science" and develop social relationships at the same time. To me, there's no conflict between those activities.
While stories about animal emotions abound, there are many lines of scientific support (what I call "science sense") about the nature of animal emotions that are rapidly accumulating from behavioral and neurobiological studies (from the emerging field called social neuroscience using fMRIs and PET scans). Common sense and intuition also feed into and support science sense and the obvious conclusion is that at least mammals experience rich and deep emotional lives, feeling passions ranging from pure and contagious joy shared so widely among others during play that it is almost epidemic, to deep grief and pain. There also are recent data that show that birds and fish also are sentient and experience pain and suffering. Emotions have evolved as adaptations in numerous species and they serve as a social glue to bond animals with one another. Emotions also catalyze and regulate a wide variety of social encounters among friends and competitors and permit animals to protect themselves adaptively and flexibly using various behavior patterns in a wide variety of venues.
In scientific research there are always surprises. Just when we think we've seen it all, new scientific data appear that force us to rethink what we know and to revise our stereotypes.
- For example, spindle cells, which were long thought to exist only in humans and other great apes, have recently been discovered in humpback whales, fin whales, killer whales, and sperm whales in the same area of their brains as spindle cells in human brains. This brain region is linked with social organization, empathy, and intuition about the feelings of others, as well as rapid gut reactions. Spindle cells are important in processing emotions. It's likely that if we seek the presence of spindle cells in other animals we will find them.
- Neuroscientific research has also shown, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that elephants have a huge hippocampus, a brain structure in the limbic system that's important in processing emotions. We now know that elephants suffer from psychological flashbacks and likely experience the equivalent of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, all mammals (including humans) share neuroanatomical structures (for example, the amygdala and hippocampus) and neurochemical pathways in the limbic system that are important for feelings.
- Along these lines, who would have thought that laboratory mice actually are empathic rodents? But now we know they are. Research has shown that mice react more strongly to painful stimuli after they observed other mice in pain, and it turns out that they are fun loving as well. Interestingly, mice, use in the millions in education and research, are not considered to be an "animal" under the federal animal welfare act in the United States and aren't protected from harmful research. A quote from the US federal register, volume 69, number 108, Friday June 4, 2004 states: "We are amending the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations to reflect an amendment to the Act's definition of the term animal. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 amended the definition of animal to specifically exclude birds, rats of the genus Rattus, and mice of the genus Mus, bred for use in research."
WHY ANIMAL EMOTIONS MATTER
We know more about animal passions then we often admit, and we can no longer ignore the pain and suffering of other beings. Many people are faced with difficult, challenging, and frustrating questions about the use of animals in their classrooms and research laboratories and today we must accept that there are compelling reasons stemming from scientific research to limit and perhaps stop using animals in lieu of the numerous highly effective non-animal alternatives that are readily available.
I often begin my lectures with the question: "Is there anyone in this audience who thinks that dogs don't have feelings - that they don't experience joy and sadness?" I've never had an enthusiastic response to this question, even in scientific gatherings, although on occasion a hand or two goes up slowly, usually halfway, as the person glances around to see if anyone is watching. But if I ask, "How many of you believe that dogs have feelings?" then almost every hand waves wildly and people smile and nod in vigorous agreement. Using behavior as our guide, by analogy we map the feelings of other beings onto our own emotional templates and we do it very reliably. Recognizing that animals have emotions is important because animals' feelings matter. Animals are sentient beings who experience the ups and downs of daily life, and we must respect this when we interact with them.
While we obviously have much more to learn, what we already know should be enough to inspire changes in the way we treat other animals. We must not simply continue with the status quo because that is what we've always done and it's convenient to do so. What we know has changed, and so should our relationships with animals. Quite often what we accept as "good welfare" isn't "good enough."
Our relationship with other animals is a complex, ambiguous, challenging, and frustrating affair, and we must continually reassess how we should interact with our nonhuman kin. Humans have enormous power to affect the world any way we choose. Daily, we silence sentience in innumerable animals in a wide variety of venues. There's no doubt whatsoever that, when it comes to what we can and cannot do to other animals, it's their emotions that should inform our discussions and our actions on their behalf.
Emotions are the gifts of our ancestors. We have them and so do other animals. We must never forget this.
Marc Bekoff is Professor Emeritus at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Some of this essay is excerpted from Marc Bekoff, The Emotional Lives of Animal A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy and Why They Matter (2007, New World Library)
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